Distributor:  Bullfrog Films
Length:  57 minutes
Date:  2014
Genre:  Expository
Language:  English
Grade level: 9-12, College, Adults
Color/BW:  Color
Closed captioning available
Interactive transcript available
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Fire and Ice

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From the Gamo Highlands of Ethiopia to the Andes of Peru, indigenous highland communities battle threats to their forests, farms, and faith.

Fire and Ice

From Ethiopia to Peru, indigenous customs protect biodiversity on sacred lands under pressure from religious conflicts and climate change. In the Gamo Highlands of Ethiopia, scientists confirm the benefits of traditional stewardship even as elders witness the decline of spiritual practices that have long protected trees, meadows and mountains. Tensions with evangelical Christians over a sacred meadow erupt into a riot. In the Peruvian Andes, the Q'eros, on a pilgrimage to a revered glacier, are driven from their ritual site by intolerant Catholics. Q'eros potato farmers face a more ominous foe: global warming is melting glaciers, their water source. Andes farmers, scientists and visiting Ethiopians struggle to adapt indigenous agriculture to the changing climate.

'This monumental film series is superb. For many indigenous cultures throughout the world, sacred places are arenas of peace, power, and reverence. Standing On Sacred Ground sheds light on cases where religion and identity are under attack, where sacred places are being recklessly transformed into a focus of conflict, power struggles, desecration, and the violation of human rights. The films will prove to be of special interest to a wide range of scientific and academic disciplines, government and NGO personnel, and the general public. They will be most relevant for university, college, and high school classrooms covering subjects in anthropology, ecology, economic development, environmental studies, globalization, government, history, human rights, indigenous studies, law, social justice, sociology, political science, and religion.' Dr. Leslie E. Sponsel, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Author, Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution

'Standing on Sacred Ground is a tour de force! This is one of the most powerful documentary series ever made on indigenous peoples and their resistance to environmental exploitation. Toby McLeod has woven stories of first nations peoples resilience amidst images of searing beauty and unimagined destruction. An awakening call indeed that should be heard around the world.' Mary Evelyn Tucker, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, Co-author, Ecology and Religion

'This is a crucial theme, extremely timely. The visually exquisite films are made politically and culturally relevant through impressive cooperation with articulate indigenous leaders who understand the importance of getting their voices heard about the environmental destruction of their sacred lands. The films are educational, accessible, and occasionally profound.' Marjorie Mandelstam Balzer, Research Professor, Center for Eurasian, Russian and Eastern European Studies, Department of Anthropology, Georgetown University, Author of Shamanic Worlds, Editor of Anthropology and Archeology of Eurasia

'Nothing like this riveting series of four desperately-urgent films about the fate of our planet has ever been seen...Patiently, lucidly and devastatingly, director Toby McLeod and his team have traveled the globe and painstakingly tracked eight stories of struggles by indigenous peoples to save the ancestral landscapes that have given them sustenance and spiritual anchoring for thousands of years. Standing on Sacred Ground is a magnificent, one-of-a-kind achievement...Containing face-offs at strategic sites, incontrovertible visual documentation of environmental wastelands, poignant voices of clarity and appeal that speak with the grave, quiet wisdom of cultures that have survived centuries of crusades to convert, exterminate, or assimilate them - these four dramatic films keep us on the edge of our seat and at the edge of tears. They absolutely must be seen by every citizen on earth.' Peter Nabokov, Anthropologist, Professor of World Arts and Cultures, University of California - Los Angeles

'An extraordinary film series highlighting the struggles, losses, and strengths of indigenous peoples working today to protect their sacred places in an industrialized world. Through beautifully filmed case studies where indigenous leaders speak for themselves, this series illustrates how history, law, science, and religion converge in the indigenous world and how critical these struggles are for the well-being of the planet as a whole.' Dr. Melissa K. Nelson, (Turtle Mountain Chippewa), Associate Professor of American Indian Studies at San Francisco State University, President of The Cultural Conservancy, Author of Original Instructions: Indigenous Teachings for a Sustainable Future

'From the local to the global, from the ancient world to the modern world, from developers to ecological preservationists, from indigenous peoples to outsiders, Standing on Sacred Ground explores the many sides of resource development on indigenous lands...The series provides considerable insight into the issues Indigenous Peoples face, and shows how and why they are fighting to preserve their sacred lands, their traditions, their life-ways, and their cultures. No study of contemporary ecological issues would be complete without hearing and seeing this aspect of ecology and development controversies.' Thomas D. Hall, Professor Emeritus of Sociology and Anthropology, DePauw University, Co-author, Indigenous Peoples and Globalization: Resistance and Revitalization

'Standing on Sacred Ground is one of the most powerful educational films, reminding us that Indigenous peoples are the true guardians of Mother Earth and their wisdom needs to be heeded - our future depends on it. Beautifully produced. Outstanding Indigenous commentary on the sacredness of Mother Earth and how we need to stop the plunder before we all vanish.' Dr. Julian Kunnie, Professor of Religious Studies/Classics, University of Arizona, Author, Indigenous Wisdom and Power: Affirming our Knowledge Through Narratives

'This important educational documentary demonstrates the unsustainable cost of rampant resource extraction and development and the devastating impacts on those who hold sacred the duty to protect the earth, Indigenous peoples. In documenting cases from the Pacific to the remote mountains of Altai and across the Americas, it demonstrates the vital importance of traditional Indigenous knowledge in the preservation of biodiversity and shows that, far from being a primitive relic from the past, Indigenous knowledge is vital to the recovery of the biosphere and to our collective future existence. This is a well-executed documentary, suitable for post-secondary educational programs.' Makere Stewart-Harawira, Associate Professor of Theoretical, Cultural and International Studies in Education, University of Alberta, Author, The New Imperial Order: Indigenous Responses to Globalization

'Beautifully illuminates indigenous peoples' resistance to environmental devastation and their determination to protect our common future.' Robert Redford

'Words that seem most appropriate in characterizing this documentary include awesome, beautiful, ugly, dramatic, revealing, disturbing, heroic, moving, and inspiring...A unique and historic achievement...The film exposes contemporary cultural, ecological, religious, and political realities, transcending the usual 'just-so-stories' of the ethnographic present dominating many textbooks. The film both tests anthropological viewers' adherence to cultural relativism and challenges any scientism because for indigenes nature is alive and spiritual with its sacred foci of power, reverence, and healing...This educational film series is most relevant for instructors and students in universities, colleges, and high schools for a wide variety of disciplines, topics, and courses. The four DVDs will allow instructors to easily use any of the individual eight cases, each 25 minutes long, making the series ideal for classroom use, or for students to pursue their individual interests.' Anthropology News (April 2014)

'Standing on Sacred Ground does well to not only allow the voices and experiences of actual Indigenous peoples, scholars, and activists shine throughout the films, but also calls out to viewers asking them what they can do for the land so 'the land can love them back.' This film series is thorough, critically engaging, inclusive, and very well produced. The eight case studies of Indigenous communities around the world offer the viewer a glimpse into the everyday lives of these people and can therefore be an excellent educational tool for students and activists of most ages. I highly recommend this film series for anyone who wants to learn about Indigenous cultures across the globe, as well as anyone who wants to fully understand how and why the earth is slowly being destroyed by the efforts of 'progress,' along with what they can do to help reverse the process of ecological destruction.' Jennifer Loft, University at Buffalo, Educational Media Reviews Online


Awards

John de Graaf Environmental Filmmaking Award, Wild and Scenic Environmental Film Festival
Mill Valley Film Festival
Environmental Film Festival in the Nation's Capital

1
01:00:01,417 --> 01:00:07,101
[instrumental music]

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01:00:07,125 --> 01:00:11,768
In every culture,
people have found

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01:00:11,792 --> 01:00:14,768
symbolic sacred places

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01:00:14,792 --> 01:00:19,975
where they can recognize
the beauty,

5
01:00:19,999 --> 01:00:25,501
the enormity of the universe
coming together as a focus.

6
01:00:30,584 --> 01:00:33,935
(male narrator)
Around the world,
people of all beliefs

7
01:00:33,959 --> 01:00:35,477
protect their
places of connection,

8
01:00:35,501 --> 01:00:38,751
rejuvenation,
and spirituality.

9
01:00:40,999 --> 01:00:44,810
But some sacred sites have
become an unholy battleground

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01:00:44,834 --> 01:00:47,935
of land rights
and religious dogma.

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01:00:47,959 --> 01:00:49,518
In Ethiopia,

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01:00:49,542 --> 01:00:52,975
sacred areas that are
sanctuaries of biodiversity

13
01:00:52,999 --> 01:00:57,975
are under attack by a wave
of religious fundamentalism.

14
01:00:57,999 --> 01:01:01,518
[speaking native language]

15
01:01:01,542 --> 01:01:04,542
[crowd shouting]

16
01:01:07,501 --> 01:01:08,894
(narrator)
And in Peru,

17
01:01:08,918 --> 01:01:12,059
Andean potato farmers
face cultural devastation

18
01:01:12,083 --> 01:01:13,975
from climate change.

19
01:01:13,999 --> 01:01:16,792
[speaking native language]

20
01:01:18,501 --> 01:01:21,042
[Gamarra speaking
native language]

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01:01:27,292 --> 01:01:30,876
(Lyons)
Things are out of kilter,
out of whack, all over.

22
01:01:32,334 --> 01:01:34,975
What indigenous people know
is nature,

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01:01:34,999 --> 01:01:36,935
and they're the very people
who are suffering

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01:01:36,959 --> 01:01:39,477
the most right now.

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01:01:39,501 --> 01:01:41,351
And those people,
we have to protect,

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01:01:41,375 --> 01:01:44,268
and we have to learn from them.

27
01:01:44,292 --> 01:01:47,292
[people singing
in native language]

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01:01:50,584 --> 01:01:53,560
[gentle music]

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01:01:53,584 --> 01:02:00,501
♪ ♪

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01:02:02,709 --> 01:02:04,975
(female announcer)
Funding for theStanding
on Sacred Groundseries


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01:02:04,999 --> 01:02:06,185
has been provided by

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01:02:06,209 --> 01:02:08,542
the Corporation
for Public Broadcasting.

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01:02:10,501 --> 01:02:13,918
Additional funding was provided
by the following:

34
01:02:18,999 --> 01:02:21,250
A complete list is available at:

35
01:02:31,999 --> 01:02:34,999
[Sank'a speaking
native language]

36
01:02:55,709 --> 01:02:58,709
[crowd chanting
in native language]

37
01:03:04,292 --> 01:03:06,975
(narrator)
In the Gamo Highlands
of Ethiopia,

38
01:03:06,999 --> 01:03:08,792
it's time to light the fire.

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01:03:11,876 --> 01:03:13,518
Across the countryside,

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01:03:13,542 --> 01:03:16,143
people are gathering
in sacred groves and meadows

41
01:03:16,167 --> 01:03:19,975
for Masqala, the region's
New Year celebration.

42
01:03:19,999 --> 01:03:22,999
[men laughing and shouting]

43
01:03:25,999 --> 01:03:28,999
[man speaking native language]

44
01:03:31,959 --> 01:03:35,768
[yelling]

45
01:03:35,792 --> 01:03:37,477
(narrator)
The fire brings renewal,

46
01:03:37,501 --> 01:03:42,268
giving power to the blessings
and wishes for the coming year.

47
01:03:42,292 --> 01:03:45,292
[man speaking native language]

48
01:03:54,542 --> 01:03:57,542
[man speaking
native language]

49
01:04:00,209 --> 01:04:03,209
[men chanting]

50
01:04:09,250 --> 01:04:12,935
[horns bugling]

51
01:04:12,959 --> 01:04:15,959
[Shagire speaking
native language]

52
01:04:29,125 --> 01:04:31,643
[man speaking
native language]

53
01:04:31,667 --> 01:04:34,667
[men chanting]

54
01:04:37,292 --> 01:04:39,852
(narrator)
Thedubusha
is a sacred meeting place

55
01:04:39,876 --> 01:04:43,626
for managing common resources
and resolving disputes.

56
01:04:45,209 --> 01:04:48,209
[speaking native language]

57
01:04:55,042 --> 01:04:57,685
(narrator)
All decisions are made
by consensus.

58
01:04:57,709 --> 01:05:00,792
[speaking
native language]

59
01:05:04,501 --> 01:05:07,501
[speaking
native language]

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01:05:08,834 --> 01:05:12,226
[all hooting]

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01:05:12,250 --> 01:05:15,250
[men chanting]

62
01:05:19,999 --> 01:05:21,975
(narrator)
Located in the Horn of Africa,

63
01:05:21,999 --> 01:05:25,976
Ethiopia boasts high plateaus
and fertile lowlands

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01:05:26,000 --> 01:05:29,417
abounding with cultural
and biological diversity.

65
01:05:36,334 --> 01:05:39,643
Many of the country's
80 ethnic groups have continued

66
01:05:39,667 --> 01:05:42,727
to follow their unique
spiritual traditions,

67
01:05:42,751 --> 01:05:45,975
coexisting with
the Ethiopian Orthodox church

68
01:05:45,999 --> 01:05:47,876
since the 4th century.

69
01:05:54,751 --> 01:05:57,310
5,000 feet
above the Rift Valley,

70
01:05:57,334 --> 01:05:59,685
the people of the Gamo Highlands
have maintained

71
01:05:59,709 --> 01:06:01,975
their own distinctive culture,

72
01:06:01,999 --> 01:06:05,975
tending a network
of sacred natural sites.

73
01:06:05,999 --> 01:06:08,101
Their indigenous belief system,

74
01:06:08,125 --> 01:06:10,975
based on the celebration
and renewal of fertility,

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01:06:10,999 --> 01:06:12,250
is calledwoga.

76
01:06:18,834 --> 01:06:21,501
[speaking
native language]

77
01:06:22,999 --> 01:06:25,751
[Shagire speaking
native language]

78
01:06:33,417 --> 01:06:36,101
(narrator)
Among its many rules
governing the relationship

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01:06:36,125 --> 01:06:38,727
between the natural
and spiritual world,

80
01:06:38,751 --> 01:06:42,226
wogacalls for the protection
of certain landscapes.

81
01:06:42,250 --> 01:06:46,975
Traditionally, when you go
to forest to cut trees,

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01:06:46,999 --> 01:06:49,018
you have to ask elders,

83
01:06:49,042 --> 01:06:51,894
and they tell you what to cut.

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01:06:51,918 --> 01:06:54,351
You don't cut every tree
you get.

85
01:06:54,375 --> 01:06:57,351
Tradition protects
loss of trees.

86
01:06:57,375 --> 01:06:59,852
[men speaking native language]

87
01:06:59,876 --> 01:07:02,268
(narrator)
Community leaders,
calledhalak'as,

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01:07:02,292 --> 01:07:03,727
enforcewoga.

89
01:07:03,751 --> 01:07:05,435
[speaking
native language]

90
01:07:05,459 --> 01:07:09,435
(narrator)
They call on special priests
calledmaakasto pray

91
01:07:09,459 --> 01:07:12,643
and perform ritual sacrifice.

92
01:07:12,667 --> 01:07:14,518
(Woldu)
It is quite elaborate.

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01:07:14,542 --> 01:07:18,268
There are guardians responsible
for each sacred site.

94
01:07:18,292 --> 01:07:20,185
For example, there will be
a person responsible

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01:07:20,209 --> 01:07:22,976
to maintain and keep the--
the sacred tree.

96
01:07:23,000 --> 01:07:26,059
There is another person
to maintain the sacred lane

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01:07:26,083 --> 01:07:27,975
and the sacred stone.

98
01:07:27,999 --> 01:07:30,042
There are also sacred meadows.

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01:07:31,751 --> 01:07:34,310
(narrator)
On sacred grazing meadows,
calledkalo,

100
01:07:34,334 --> 01:07:38,643
any disturbance of the land
is strictly forbidden.

101
01:07:38,667 --> 01:07:41,667
[Mazge speaking native language]

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01:07:53,751 --> 01:07:57,560
(narrator)
Thiskalowas saved
for Masqala.

103
01:07:57,584 --> 01:08:00,185
Its abundant grass
means a feast for the cattle

104
01:08:00,209 --> 01:08:02,226
and a holiday
for their herders.

105
01:08:02,250 --> 01:08:05,250
[singing in native language]

106
01:08:15,542 --> 01:08:18,584
[people singing and chattering]

107
01:08:25,918 --> 01:08:30,059
(Woldu)
After the meadow has acquired
a sufficient amount of biomass,

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01:08:30,083 --> 01:08:35,975
then the people will be allowed
to graze in the--in the meadow.

109
01:08:35,999 --> 01:08:38,310
(narrator)
Thekaloopening during Masqala

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01:08:38,334 --> 01:08:41,560
celebrates the crucial role
grass plays

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01:08:41,584 --> 01:08:43,584
in the cycle of life.

112
01:08:46,999 --> 01:08:49,999
[speaking native language]

113
01:09:16,375 --> 01:09:18,975
(narrator)
Maako Wario
is the spiritual guardian

114
01:09:18,999 --> 01:09:20,643
of Maylo Mountain,

115
01:09:20,667 --> 01:09:23,101
another place held sacred
for generations.

116
01:09:23,125 --> 01:09:26,250
[speaking
native language]

117
01:09:27,999 --> 01:09:30,999
[Aba speaking native language]

118
01:09:39,999 --> 01:09:43,768
(narrator)
Maako Wario's practice
is the foundation ofwoga

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01:09:43,792 --> 01:09:46,768
and the heart
of traditional spirituality:

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01:09:46,792 --> 01:09:49,185
ritual sacrifice.

121
01:09:49,209 --> 01:09:52,209
[men chanting]

122
01:10:04,876 --> 01:10:07,876
[men chattering]

123
01:10:20,999 --> 01:10:23,999
[Aba speaking native language]

124
01:10:41,918 --> 01:10:43,560
(narrator)
But elders have seen a change

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01:10:43,584 --> 01:10:46,626
in the community's relationship
with the land.

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01:10:51,584 --> 01:10:53,975
Ek'a Herayssa is the guardian
of Naggasa,

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01:10:53,999 --> 01:10:57,852
the sacred forest where
he contacts the spirit world.

128
01:10:57,876 --> 01:11:00,959
[Herayssa speaking
native language]

129
01:11:59,209 --> 01:12:02,685
(narrator)
For centuries,
the Ethiopian Orthodox church

130
01:12:02,709 --> 01:12:06,975
coexisted peacefully with
indigenous practices likewoga.

131
01:12:06,999 --> 01:12:08,643
(Daba)
All over the country,

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01:12:08,667 --> 01:12:14,268
there are peoples who are going
to go to the Orthodox church,

133
01:12:14,292 --> 01:12:18,000
and they're still practicing
their own cultural traditions.

134
01:12:21,042 --> 01:12:23,351
[woman singing
in native language]

135
01:12:23,375 --> 01:12:25,018
(narrator)
But in the past 20 years,

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01:12:25,042 --> 01:12:26,975
the Orthodox church--

137
01:12:26,999 --> 01:12:29,226
and growing numbers
of Protestant converts--

138
01:12:29,250 --> 01:12:31,975
have become more conservative.

139
01:12:31,999 --> 01:12:37,959
Now both churches rejectwoga
as superstition or worse.

140
01:12:46,292 --> 01:12:49,292
[Merid speaking native language]

141
01:12:56,626 --> 01:12:59,059
(Tesfaye)
Because most of these
practices are attached

142
01:12:59,083 --> 01:13:04,810
to some demon worship,
personally, I'm against them,

143
01:13:04,834 --> 01:13:09,435
because it holds people
with fear,

144
01:13:09,459 --> 01:13:12,393
and what they're doing
doesn't really help them.

145
01:13:12,417 --> 01:13:15,351
Many people
are becoming Protestant.

146
01:13:15,375 --> 01:13:17,602
The Orthodox don't like that,

147
01:13:17,626 --> 01:13:19,810
and the traditionals
don't like that.

148
01:13:19,834 --> 01:13:22,975
Most of these people are coming
to the Protestant church

149
01:13:22,999 --> 01:13:26,226
because of modernism.

150
01:13:26,250 --> 01:13:29,351
There's the synthesizer,
the choir, the preaching--

151
01:13:29,375 --> 01:13:31,685
that really attracts
many people then.

152
01:13:31,709 --> 01:13:34,250
Maybe they understand
the real message of the gospel.

153
01:13:36,999 --> 01:13:40,518
(narrator)
No one has felt these changes
more than Maako Dogiso,

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01:13:40,542 --> 01:13:43,083
caretaker of the Muta Mountain.

155
01:13:44,918 --> 01:13:47,918
[speaking
native language]

156
01:13:49,999 --> 01:13:52,999
[Dogiso speaking
native language]

157
01:14:15,501 --> 01:14:18,501
[Chule speaking native language]

158
01:14:35,959 --> 01:14:38,959
[Dogiso speaking
native language]

159
01:16:16,501 --> 01:16:19,501
[Chule speaking native language]

160
01:16:35,125 --> 01:16:38,125
[Gaas speaking English]

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01:16:45,959 --> 01:16:49,584
They are losing ground,
traditional beliefs.

162
01:16:51,999 --> 01:16:54,310
(narrator)
Now traditionalists say
the conflict

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01:16:54,334 --> 01:16:56,999
has gone beyond threats
to the land.

164
01:16:59,999 --> 01:17:02,999
[Sank'a speaking
native language]

165
01:17:13,000 --> 01:17:15,393
(narrator)
Terenke Sank'a is a medium

166
01:17:15,417 --> 01:17:17,975
known for her prophetic visions.

167
01:17:17,999 --> 01:17:20,999
[Sank'a speaking
native language]

168
01:17:25,918 --> 01:17:28,894
(narrator)
Sank'a's coffee ceremony
is an ancient way

169
01:17:28,918 --> 01:17:31,393
to communicate
with the spiritual world.

170
01:17:31,417 --> 01:17:34,417
[chanting
in native language]

171
01:17:38,292 --> 01:17:41,727
(narrator)
People consult her
to rectify past mistakes

172
01:17:41,751 --> 01:17:44,209
or look into the future.

173
01:17:45,209 --> 01:17:48,209
[Sank'a speaking
native language]

174
01:18:30,999 --> 01:18:33,999
[Sank'a speaking
native language]

175
01:18:57,209 --> 01:19:00,292
[Merid speaking native language]

176
01:19:18,834 --> 01:19:21,810
[cup clinking]

177
01:19:21,834 --> 01:19:24,834
[Sank'a speaking
native language]

178
01:19:38,417 --> 01:19:41,334
[jubilant, celebratory
singing and whooping]

179
01:19:49,667 --> 01:19:53,143
(narrator)
Another day of Masqala
celebration is calledsofe,

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01:19:53,167 --> 01:19:55,643
the presentation of brides.

181
01:19:55,667 --> 01:19:58,667
[people singing and clapping]

182
01:20:02,999 --> 01:20:05,975
Newlyweds are dressed
in crowns of butter

183
01:20:05,999 --> 01:20:08,999
and paraded through Dorbo,
the sacred meadow.

184
01:20:10,999 --> 01:20:13,101
But before the women
could present themselves

185
01:20:13,125 --> 01:20:17,518
to the elders,
the ceremony was interrupted.

186
01:20:17,542 --> 01:20:20,542
[Malabo speaking
native language]

187
01:21:11,250 --> 01:21:13,250
[man speaking native language]

188
01:21:17,999 --> 01:21:20,999
[speaking
native language]

189
01:21:24,334 --> 01:21:27,334
[Malabo speaking
native language]

190
01:21:37,999 --> 01:21:40,999
[people chanting
in native language]

191
01:21:45,125 --> 01:21:48,125
[Malabo speaking
native language]

192
01:21:49,999 --> 01:21:51,143
[gunshots]

193
01:21:51,167 --> 01:21:53,167
[screams and shouts]

194
01:21:55,292 --> 01:21:58,292
[gunshots]

195
01:22:06,334 --> 01:22:09,334
[Malabo speaking
native language]

196
01:22:11,999 --> 01:22:14,999
[thunder booming]

197
01:22:54,999 --> 01:22:56,727
We don't know why
this whole thing began,

198
01:22:56,751 --> 01:23:01,518
but somebody passed on a--
a wrong message to the people,

199
01:23:01,542 --> 01:23:04,167
saying that the Christians
have come to take Dorbo.

200
01:23:06,999 --> 01:23:10,351
People are afraid to plow Dorbo

201
01:23:10,375 --> 01:23:13,393
because they would think
God will destroy them.

202
01:23:13,417 --> 01:23:16,018
It's a sacred place
that shouldn't be touched.

203
01:23:16,042 --> 01:23:18,101
Okay,

204
01:23:18,125 --> 01:23:20,727
but what God has given them
to use,

205
01:23:20,751 --> 01:23:22,351
they should really subdue.

206
01:23:22,375 --> 01:23:24,477
They should really be using
the land

207
01:23:24,501 --> 01:23:26,477
because it's given to people.

208
01:23:26,501 --> 01:23:29,226
They should really
come out of that fear.

209
01:23:29,250 --> 01:23:31,976
It's like bondage.

210
01:23:32,000 --> 01:23:34,975
[chanting
in native language]

211
01:23:34,999 --> 01:23:36,393
(Gaas)
It is everybody's right

212
01:23:36,417 --> 01:23:38,351
to come and convince
the individual

213
01:23:38,375 --> 01:23:42,727
to give up a certain belief
and to assume another.

214
01:23:42,751 --> 01:23:45,393
But people shouldn't infringe
on the right of others

215
01:23:45,417 --> 01:23:47,975
by just propagating their own.

216
01:23:47,999 --> 01:23:50,999
[people chanting
in native language]

217
01:23:53,918 --> 01:23:56,250
[Aba speaking native language]

218
01:24:08,709 --> 01:24:11,709
[people singing
in native language]

219
01:24:17,918 --> 01:24:20,560
(Gaas)
In traditional beliefs,
there is some wisdom,

220
01:24:20,584 --> 01:24:22,751
some knowledge in it.

221
01:24:24,292 --> 01:24:27,185
If you recognize all beliefs
do exist,

222
01:24:27,209 --> 01:24:30,667
survival of one is important
for the survival of another.

223
01:24:38,999 --> 01:24:40,852
(narrator)
Elders see the Gamo landscape

224
01:24:40,876 --> 01:24:42,975
as a network of sacred sites

225
01:24:42,999 --> 01:24:45,059
that are the heart
of the community

226
01:24:45,083 --> 01:24:47,000
and the key to its fertility.

227
01:24:54,834 --> 01:24:59,101
Their wisdom is now being
recognized by modern science.

228
01:24:59,125 --> 01:25:00,852
(Woldu)
Here in the Gamo Highlands,

229
01:25:00,876 --> 01:25:05,935
we have encountered
more than 300 sacred sites.

230
01:25:05,959 --> 01:25:08,018
Since these places
are protected,

231
01:25:08,042 --> 01:25:10,685
that keeps
their biodiversity intact.

232
01:25:10,709 --> 01:25:13,417
[speaking
native language]

233
01:25:26,167 --> 01:25:32,894
What we found is that there is
35% more biodiversity

234
01:25:32,918 --> 01:25:35,727
in the sacred groves.

235
01:25:35,751 --> 01:25:37,935
Through traditional ways,

236
01:25:37,959 --> 01:25:40,334
biodiversity is being protected.

237
01:25:42,959 --> 01:25:47,059
Science have quite a lot
to learn.

238
01:25:47,083 --> 01:25:49,975
There is considerable amount
of knowledge

239
01:25:49,999 --> 01:25:53,185
attached with the use
of the plants.

240
01:25:53,209 --> 01:25:58,042
Plants have medicinal values
for humans and livestock.

241
01:25:59,918 --> 01:26:01,999
Oh, okay.

242
01:26:08,167 --> 01:26:11,643
(Woldu)
Some plants
are wild edible plants.

243
01:26:11,667 --> 01:26:15,975
Some plants have importance
in maintaining soil fertility.

244
01:26:15,999 --> 01:26:19,209
Some plants have
not even been investigated.

245
01:26:21,999 --> 01:26:26,185
I consider this
as a landscape supermarket

246
01:26:26,209 --> 01:26:31,310
where people go out
and collect food materials,

247
01:26:31,334 --> 01:26:35,375
medicine, and plants
of ritual importance.

248
01:26:44,999 --> 01:26:48,810
(Woldu)
Our recommendation would be,
give the non-sacred groves

249
01:26:48,834 --> 01:26:51,268
the same status
as the sacred groves

250
01:26:51,292 --> 01:26:53,999
so that more biodiversity
can be protected.

251
01:26:59,834 --> 01:27:04,209
(Gaas)
Knowing your past helps you
to determine your own future.

252
01:27:06,083 --> 01:27:08,584
You didn't start from nothing.

253
01:27:10,999 --> 01:27:12,976
This country's very big.

254
01:27:13,000 --> 01:27:16,185
Immense diversities
in religious beliefs

255
01:27:16,209 --> 01:27:18,975
and cultural practices.

256
01:27:18,999 --> 01:27:23,268
Anything that offer value
for humanity

257
01:27:23,292 --> 01:27:27,334
should be at least
not be lost.

258
01:27:30,459 --> 01:27:33,459
[Dogiso speaking
native language]

259
01:27:54,999 --> 01:27:57,999
[Sank'a speaking
native language]

260
01:28:28,417 --> 01:28:30,250
[Aba speaking native language]

261
01:28:57,250 --> 01:29:01,602
(Woldu)
There is this elaborate way
of protecting the landscape,

262
01:29:01,626 --> 01:29:04,976
and people now are becoming
very much aware of their rights.

263
01:29:05,000 --> 01:29:08,935
This is very important
in maintaining biodiversity,

264
01:29:08,959 --> 01:29:11,250
and there is a lot to learn
from this kind of work.

265
01:29:13,042 --> 01:29:15,560
(narrator)
Though separated
by language, custom,

266
01:29:15,584 --> 01:29:17,435
and 8,000 miles,

267
01:29:17,459 --> 01:29:20,975
the Q'eros of Peru share
the Ethiopians' deep concerns

268
01:29:20,999 --> 01:29:23,143
for protecting
their natural heritage

269
01:29:23,167 --> 01:29:26,852
in the face
of global environmental threats.

270
01:29:26,876 --> 01:29:29,876
[Fredy Machacca
speaking native language]

271
01:29:38,999 --> 01:29:41,018
There is a relationship
between cultural diversity

272
01:29:41,042 --> 01:29:43,435
and biological diversity.

273
01:29:43,459 --> 01:29:44,768
And the reality is,

274
01:29:44,792 --> 01:29:48,101
is these are man-made
catastrophes

275
01:29:48,125 --> 01:29:50,560
which cause destruction
of people

276
01:29:50,584 --> 01:29:53,935
and crashing of ecosystems
and climate change.

277
01:29:53,959 --> 01:29:57,226
[ice rumbling]

278
01:29:57,250 --> 01:30:00,975
You cannot solve
the problem of global warming

279
01:30:00,999 --> 01:30:05,975
with the same tools and mind-set
which has created it.

280
01:30:05,999 --> 01:30:10,894
The problem is our attitude
towards the natural world.

281
01:30:10,918 --> 01:30:12,975
We don't want to stop
our consumerism,

282
01:30:12,999 --> 01:30:15,143
we don't want to stop
our materialism,

283
01:30:15,167 --> 01:30:17,852
but climate change
is forcing us

284
01:30:17,876 --> 01:30:21,542
to rethink our relationship
with the Earth.

285
01:30:24,501 --> 01:30:27,501
[Fredy Machacca speaking
native language]

286
01:30:53,083 --> 01:31:02,643
[whimsical music playing]

287
01:31:02,667 --> 01:31:05,393
(narrator)
From a small village
in the Andes,

288
01:31:05,417 --> 01:31:07,894
farmers and shepherds
are on a pilgrimage

289
01:31:07,918 --> 01:31:10,501
to visit the most powerful
spirits of the land.

290
01:31:15,000 --> 01:31:18,000
[Quispe speaking
native language]

291
01:31:40,167 --> 01:31:43,975
[horn blowing]

292
01:31:43,999 --> 01:31:46,727
(narrator)
In this group from Qochomoqo,

293
01:31:46,751 --> 01:31:49,351
Mariano Machacca leads
the pilgrimage,

294
01:31:49,375 --> 01:31:52,018
Benito Quispe
is the spiritual guide,

295
01:31:52,042 --> 01:31:55,975
and Fredy Flores Machacca,
the Q'ero cameraman.

296
01:31:55,999 --> 01:32:02,018
[drum banging, flute whistling]

297
01:32:02,042 --> 01:32:05,393
On their annual journey to
the festival of Qoyllur Rit'i,

298
01:32:05,417 --> 01:32:09,101
the Q'eros will walk 30 miles
in the next four days

299
01:32:09,125 --> 01:32:11,685
to pray for good fortune
in the coming year.

300
01:32:11,709 --> 01:32:19,709
♪ ♪

301
01:32:29,000 --> 01:32:32,975
The pilgrims also seek blessings
for the mountain spirits,

302
01:32:32,999 --> 01:32:35,226
now threatened
by the choices of people

303
01:32:35,250 --> 01:32:37,999
thousands of miles away.

304
01:32:42,417 --> 01:32:44,143
Since ancient times,

305
01:32:44,167 --> 01:32:46,894
the physical geography of Peru
has been a map

306
01:32:46,918 --> 01:32:49,518
of indigenous spiritual beliefs,

307
01:32:49,542 --> 01:32:53,709
rich with sacred mountains,
rivers, and glaciers.

308
01:32:56,167 --> 01:32:59,226
Just north
of the revered Mount Ausangate,

309
01:32:59,250 --> 01:33:01,643
thousands of people gather
every year

310
01:33:01,667 --> 01:33:04,975
for the festival
of Qoyllur Rit'i.

311
01:33:04,999 --> 01:33:07,477
Pilgrims from
the H'atun Q'eros community

312
01:33:07,501 --> 01:33:11,292
follow the same mountain passes
their ancestors traversed.

313
01:33:17,125 --> 01:33:19,477
Their remote location
in the highlands

314
01:33:19,501 --> 01:33:21,101
protected the Q'eros
from the brunt

315
01:33:21,125 --> 01:33:24,975
of the Spanish invasion
in the 16th century.

316
01:33:24,999 --> 01:33:28,143
Still, the conquistadors
brutally imposed Catholicism

317
01:33:28,167 --> 01:33:31,935
upon Peru's native people.

318
01:33:31,959 --> 01:33:33,685
To escape punishment,

319
01:33:33,709 --> 01:33:36,435
they blended their
traditional Incan practices

320
01:33:36,459 --> 01:33:38,268
with the new religion.

321
01:33:38,292 --> 01:33:40,727
And even under Spanish rule,

322
01:33:40,751 --> 01:33:42,810
the Q'eros continued
to pass down

323
01:33:42,834 --> 01:33:45,542
their traditional ways
of surviving on the land.

324
01:33:49,167 --> 01:33:51,643
(Argumendo)
People have coevolved

325
01:33:51,667 --> 01:33:57,894
with crops
and biodiversity here,

326
01:33:57,918 --> 01:34:02,393
so they know the best way
of how we can maintain

327
01:34:02,417 --> 01:34:04,584
this rich diversity we have.

328
01:34:13,999 --> 01:34:15,643
(narrator)
But in recent years,

329
01:34:15,667 --> 01:34:18,935
the Q'eros have been feeling
changes in Pachamama,

330
01:34:18,959 --> 01:34:21,792
or Mother Earth,
the supreme being.

331
01:34:23,999 --> 01:34:26,685
And they are seeing threats
to theapus,

332
01:34:26,709 --> 01:34:28,975
mountain spirits they invoke
for the weather

333
01:34:28,999 --> 01:34:30,959
and water they depend on.

334
01:34:32,999 --> 01:34:35,351
(Orlove)
To the herders in the Andes,

335
01:34:35,375 --> 01:34:37,351
the mountains talk
to one another.

336
01:34:37,375 --> 01:34:40,018
They know how the mountains
are related.

337
01:34:40,042 --> 01:34:43,268
[wind whistling]

338
01:34:43,292 --> 01:34:45,602
The winds are the breath
of the mountain.

339
01:34:45,626 --> 01:34:47,018
The winds are named
for the mountains

340
01:34:47,042 --> 01:34:48,375
from which they come.

341
01:34:55,125 --> 01:34:57,542
[Quispe speaking
native language]

342
01:35:09,999 --> 01:35:12,999
[Mariano Machacca
speaking native language]

343
01:35:18,999 --> 01:35:20,268
(Argumendo)
So, in a way,

344
01:35:20,292 --> 01:35:23,477
you can say that the Q'ero
think like a mountain.

345
01:35:23,501 --> 01:35:27,310
The Q'ero think like a river,
like a lake.

346
01:35:27,334 --> 01:35:29,101
That kind of thinking,
we have lost,

347
01:35:29,125 --> 01:35:30,876
and we don't understand it
any longer.

348
01:35:34,000 --> 01:35:37,643
(woman)
In the early days,
when Pachamama was young,

349
01:35:37,667 --> 01:35:41,518
the spirits of the mountains
were still growing.

350
01:35:41,542 --> 01:35:44,975
All of the peaks wanted
to reach the heavens

351
01:35:44,999 --> 01:35:47,975
but especially Apu Ausangate,

352
01:35:47,999 --> 01:35:50,334
who grew higher and higher.

353
01:35:51,751 --> 01:35:55,894
The creator, angered
by Ausangate's arrogance,

354
01:35:55,918 --> 01:35:59,727
struck theapu'shead
with a silver cross.

355
01:35:59,751 --> 01:36:04,018
Then Ausangate grew no taller,
only older,

356
01:36:04,042 --> 01:36:07,042
with a white head
like the wise men.

357
01:36:09,083 --> 01:36:11,810
But the creator warned him,

358
01:36:11,834 --> 01:36:16,185
"Your ice and snow
will one day disappear,

359
01:36:16,209 --> 01:36:18,542
"and a great wind will blow.

360
01:36:20,667 --> 01:36:23,018
"It will blow away everything,

361
01:36:23,042 --> 01:36:26,643
"even you, the mightiestapu,

362
01:36:26,667 --> 01:36:29,459
and the world will be empty."

363
01:36:33,999 --> 01:36:38,975
[jangling music playing]

364
01:36:38,999 --> 01:36:50,727
[singing
in native language]

365
01:36:50,751 --> 01:36:52,226
(narrator)
Beneath theapus,

366
01:36:52,250 --> 01:36:55,393
the Q'eros see spirits
throughout the landscape,

367
01:36:55,417 --> 01:36:59,059
in their herds,
and in their crops.

368
01:36:59,083 --> 01:37:01,602
(Argumendo)
Potatoes have a spirit.

369
01:37:01,626 --> 01:37:06,435
And our relationship is not
just a food source or a crop;

370
01:37:06,459 --> 01:37:10,518
it's more a cultural
relationship.

371
01:37:10,542 --> 01:37:12,975
(narrator)
4,000 native varieties of potato

372
01:37:12,999 --> 01:37:15,999
have been essential
to life in the Andes.

373
01:37:16,999 --> 01:37:19,999
[Gamarra speaking
native language]

374
01:37:27,999 --> 01:37:31,975
(Argumendo)
This is a very harsh
and fragile environment.

375
01:37:31,999 --> 01:37:35,143
One way to create resilience
in the system

376
01:37:35,167 --> 01:37:37,975
is to have diversity.

377
01:37:37,999 --> 01:37:41,602
All these potatoes
are like a big family,

378
01:37:41,626 --> 01:37:45,542
and they cannot live separated.

379
01:38:00,999 --> 01:38:03,999
[Gamarra speaking
native language]

380
01:38:27,834 --> 01:38:29,435
Their seasons are changed,

381
01:38:29,459 --> 01:38:30,975
their rain patterns are changed,

382
01:38:30,999 --> 01:38:32,975
the disease patterns
are changed,

383
01:38:32,999 --> 01:38:35,018
and they've already moved
their planting season

384
01:38:35,042 --> 01:38:36,477
two months early.

385
01:38:36,501 --> 01:38:39,501
[speaking
native language]

386
01:38:58,375 --> 01:39:00,852
(narrator)
Milton Gamarra is working
with the farmers

387
01:39:00,876 --> 01:39:03,143
of Qocha Moqo
to measure the impact

388
01:39:03,167 --> 01:39:06,667
of the changing climate
on their potato crop.

389
01:39:08,999 --> 01:39:12,000
[Gamarra speaking
native language]

390
01:39:24,292 --> 01:39:26,185
(narrator)
Gamarra encourages the farmers

391
01:39:26,209 --> 01:39:28,685
to carry on
their planting customs,

392
01:39:28,709 --> 01:39:32,685
including the traditional
practice of cooperation.

393
01:39:32,709 --> 01:39:35,250
[Quispe speaking
native language]

394
01:39:44,209 --> 01:39:47,894
Reciprocity is part
of the Andean world,

395
01:39:47,918 --> 01:39:50,976
and in the Q'eros,
you see it all the way.

396
01:39:51,000 --> 01:39:54,975
You will never see
even the poorest community

397
01:39:54,999 --> 01:39:57,751
not sharing or not giving.

398
01:39:59,542 --> 01:40:02,685
(narrator)
The spirit ofayni
also governs the relationship

399
01:40:02,709 --> 01:40:05,226
between people and nature.

400
01:40:05,250 --> 01:40:07,477
The effort of climbing
a mountain

401
01:40:07,501 --> 01:40:09,167
is one way to show the respect.

402
01:40:12,501 --> 01:40:16,560
Everyone who climbs that pass
for the first time takes a rock.

403
01:40:16,584 --> 01:40:19,999
And you see actually quite large
piles of rocks on passes.

404
01:40:23,375 --> 01:40:26,375
[Quispe speaking
native language]

405
01:40:40,209 --> 01:40:42,975
[flute playing]

406
01:40:42,999 --> 01:40:45,185
(narrator)
When the small
Q'eros group arrives

407
01:40:45,209 --> 01:40:46,975
at the Sinakara Valley,

408
01:40:46,999 --> 01:40:49,975
they join
more than 40,000 faithful

409
01:40:49,999 --> 01:40:52,417
from hundreds
of Peruvian communities.

410
01:40:53,999 --> 01:40:56,477
[people chattering,
lively music playing]

411
01:40:56,501 --> 01:40:58,852
Although a Catholic celebration,

412
01:40:58,876 --> 01:41:02,435
the pilgrimage is rooted
in pre-Hispanic reverence

413
01:41:02,459 --> 01:41:06,351
for glaciers, mountains,
and water.

414
01:41:06,375 --> 01:41:09,975
The church near Mount Ausangate
was built in a place

415
01:41:09,999 --> 01:41:13,185
indigenous people
already saw as powerful.

416
01:41:13,209 --> 01:41:15,852
The culture and the religion
was westernized,

417
01:41:15,876 --> 01:41:17,727
so they have taken
into Catholic religion

418
01:41:17,751 --> 01:41:21,975
a syncretism which, through
the cross or through the saints,

419
01:41:21,999 --> 01:41:25,268
they are really worshipping
their own deities

420
01:41:25,292 --> 01:41:27,167
or their own sacred places.

421
01:41:28,834 --> 01:41:29,852
[firework crackling]

422
01:41:29,876 --> 01:41:32,250
[flute playing]

423
01:41:33,667 --> 01:41:45,101
[man singing in native language]

424
01:41:45,125 --> 01:41:47,268
(narrator)
In Q'ero villages,

425
01:41:47,292 --> 01:41:50,810
reverence for the land
permeates daily life.

426
01:41:50,834 --> 01:41:54,834
Everyone prays and makes
offerings throughout the day.

427
01:42:00,501 --> 01:42:04,125
One of the most important
offerings is coca leaves.

428
01:42:05,542 --> 01:42:08,059
For the Q'eros,
this mild stimulant provides

429
01:42:08,083 --> 01:42:11,250
a powerful connection
to the spirits of the land.

430
01:42:18,000 --> 01:42:21,000
[man speaking native language]

431
01:42:22,999 --> 01:42:26,959
[Quispe speaking
native language]

432
01:42:34,334 --> 01:42:37,643
(Scurrah)
Different families give thanks
to different deities.

433
01:42:37,667 --> 01:42:40,143
And they also do a ceremony
when they plow the fields

434
01:42:40,167 --> 01:42:43,518
because they feel
they're hurting Pachamama.

435
01:42:43,542 --> 01:42:46,435
And when you have frost
and droughts,

436
01:42:46,459 --> 01:42:49,584
they think that it's
Pachamama turning on you.

437
01:42:53,999 --> 01:42:56,894
(narrator)
Climate change has given
the Q'eros many reasons

438
01:42:56,918 --> 01:42:59,667
to believe that Pachamama
is angry.

439
01:43:01,334 --> 01:43:05,435
For centuries, the meat and wool
of their llamas and alpacas

440
01:43:05,459 --> 01:43:07,101
have made it possible to survive

441
01:43:07,125 --> 01:43:10,185
the bitter wind and cold
of the highlands.

442
01:43:10,209 --> 01:43:12,810
But now
changing weather patterns

443
01:43:12,834 --> 01:43:15,876
have reduced grazing areas
for the herds.

444
01:43:26,501 --> 01:43:27,975
The glaciers in Peru
are shrinking,

445
01:43:27,999 --> 01:43:30,351
and they're shrinking fast,

446
01:43:30,375 --> 01:43:33,435
at elevations of 16,000,
even 17,000 feet.

447
01:43:33,459 --> 01:43:36,975
You see the water
coming down from the glacier,

448
01:43:36,999 --> 01:43:39,435
and you can also see
how the stream has shrunk,

449
01:43:39,459 --> 01:43:42,018
how what was once
continuously flowing water

450
01:43:42,042 --> 01:43:44,560
is now a series of pools.

451
01:43:44,584 --> 01:43:47,975
You can see the areas where
the grasses had grown before

452
01:43:47,999 --> 01:43:49,375
that are now barren.

453
01:43:50,999 --> 01:43:52,477
So there's this deep concern

454
01:43:52,501 --> 01:43:54,727
that the pasture
is going to be gone

455
01:43:54,751 --> 01:43:57,975
and, with the end of
the pasture, their livelihood.

456
01:43:57,999 --> 01:44:00,584
There is no place
for them to turn.

457
01:44:06,834 --> 01:44:09,834
[Gamarra speaking
native language]

458
01:44:22,167 --> 01:44:25,167
[Mariano Machacca
speaking native language]

459
01:44:36,999 --> 01:44:39,185
(narrator)
The shrinking glaciers
have also forced

460
01:44:39,209 --> 01:44:42,185
the Qoyllur Rit'i pilgrims
to change their traditions.

461
01:44:42,209 --> 01:44:45,185
[festive music playing]

462
01:44:45,209 --> 01:44:53,209
♪ ♪

463
01:44:55,209 --> 01:44:58,975
As always, they dance dressed
as mythological characters,

464
01:44:58,999 --> 01:45:00,975
including theukuku,

465
01:45:00,999 --> 01:45:02,975
shaggy bears
who are both tricksters

466
01:45:02,999 --> 01:45:05,209
and guardians
of the festival.

467
01:45:10,334 --> 01:45:13,894
Hundreds ofukukus
spend the night on the glacier,

468
01:45:13,918 --> 01:45:16,918
holding secret rituals
on the ice.

469
01:45:17,999 --> 01:45:27,935
[people singing
in native language]

470
01:45:27,959 --> 01:45:30,268
(Orlove)
They march up to the ice
and carve the ice

471
01:45:30,292 --> 01:45:32,018
from the face
of the glacier itself,

472
01:45:32,042 --> 01:45:34,975
this ice that brings
to them health,

473
01:45:34,999 --> 01:45:36,268
that brings them strength,

474
01:45:36,292 --> 01:45:38,351
that reaffirms the connection
to this mountain

475
01:45:38,375 --> 01:45:40,999
that is just such a center
to their world.

476
01:45:44,999 --> 01:45:46,351
(narrator)
But pilgrims see

477
01:45:46,375 --> 01:45:48,602
that their revered
Colquepunku glacier

478
01:45:48,626 --> 01:45:50,768
is also receding--

479
01:45:50,792 --> 01:45:54,393
more than 600 feet
in 20 years.

480
01:45:54,417 --> 01:45:56,435
(Orlove)
So they realized
that it was time for them

481
01:45:56,459 --> 01:45:58,768
to stop taking the ice.

482
01:45:58,792 --> 01:46:01,768
(narrator)
Festival authorities
have forbidden any harvest

483
01:46:01,792 --> 01:46:05,667
of the sacred glacial ice
since 2003.

484
01:46:07,709 --> 01:46:10,351
Scientists say
that all of Peru's glaciers

485
01:46:10,375 --> 01:46:14,250
could disappear
as early as 2045.

486
01:46:18,792 --> 01:46:21,975
(de Mola)
Peru holds around 75%
of the tropical glaciers

487
01:46:21,999 --> 01:46:23,975
of the world,

488
01:46:23,999 --> 01:46:28,727
and that has been
the basic source for water

489
01:46:28,751 --> 01:46:32,560
and agriculture
in the last 5,000 years.

490
01:46:32,584 --> 01:46:33,975
If that fails
for a couple of years,

491
01:46:33,999 --> 01:46:35,560
we'll have social unrest.

492
01:46:35,584 --> 01:46:37,918
We'll have unemployed people.
We'll have problems there.

493
01:46:59,417 --> 01:47:01,518
(Orlove)
On every continent,
there are glaciers,

494
01:47:01,542 --> 01:47:03,999
and on every continent,
they've been shrinking.

495
01:47:06,000 --> 01:47:07,435
When the glaciers are gone,

496
01:47:07,459 --> 01:47:09,143
you're not going to be able
to grow the crops.

497
01:47:09,167 --> 01:47:10,975
You're not going to be able
to feed the animals.

498
01:47:10,999 --> 01:47:13,143
And the people in the cities
just don't know

499
01:47:13,167 --> 01:47:14,935
where they're going to get
their water.

500
01:47:14,959 --> 01:47:16,810
(Lyons)
Less than 2% of the water

501
01:47:16,834 --> 01:47:18,876
in the earth is--
you can drink.

502
01:47:22,999 --> 01:47:24,810
That's what we're facing.

503
01:47:24,834 --> 01:47:27,042
We're facing serious calamity.

504
01:47:29,918 --> 01:47:32,727
The problem lies
in industrial life,

505
01:47:32,751 --> 01:47:35,685
and the United States has
the biggest carbon footprint

506
01:47:35,709 --> 01:47:36,975
in the world.

507
01:47:36,999 --> 01:47:38,810
We're forcing
the rest of the world

508
01:47:38,834 --> 01:47:40,894
to accommodate to us,

509
01:47:40,918 --> 01:47:44,167
and how it can be mitigated
is up to us right now.

510
01:47:47,999 --> 01:47:49,268
(Argumendo)
All over the world,

511
01:47:49,292 --> 01:47:51,685
indigenous peoples
have contributed the least

512
01:47:51,709 --> 01:47:54,727
to global emissions, and--

513
01:47:54,751 --> 01:47:58,351
that are responsible
for this global warming.

514
01:47:58,375 --> 01:48:02,018
But because they live
in the most fragile ecosystems,

515
01:48:02,042 --> 01:48:05,584
the people are facing
a traumatic change.

516
01:48:23,667 --> 01:48:25,268
(narrator)
Through times of change,

517
01:48:25,292 --> 01:48:29,018
the Q'eros stay close
to their indigenous roots.

518
01:48:29,042 --> 01:48:30,477
At Qoyllur Rit'i,

519
01:48:30,501 --> 01:48:33,975
they never adopted the ritual
of taking glacier ice

520
01:48:33,999 --> 01:48:37,584
or lighting fireworks to draw
the attention of theapus.

521
01:48:41,209 --> 01:48:44,059
Every year, an elder
divines the location

522
01:48:44,083 --> 01:48:46,459
for the Q'eros offering.

523
01:48:52,918 --> 01:48:54,975
Blowing on coca leaves
sends a greeting

524
01:48:54,999 --> 01:48:56,852
to theapusof the area,

525
01:48:56,876 --> 01:49:00,999
nourishing the deities and
appealing for their protection.

526
01:49:04,417 --> 01:49:09,101
But even here, the pilgrims
cannot practice in peace.

527
01:49:09,125 --> 01:49:10,518
[sharp whistle]

528
01:49:10,542 --> 01:49:13,876
[people chattering,
drum banging]

529
01:49:16,083 --> 01:49:19,083
[speaking
native language]

530
01:49:20,959 --> 01:49:22,852
(narrator)
Theukukuorders the Q'eros

531
01:49:22,876 --> 01:49:25,083
to stop their ceremony
and clear out.

532
01:49:27,459 --> 01:49:28,584
[whistle blows]

533
01:49:40,999 --> 01:49:42,792
[distant fireworks exploding]

534
01:50:06,125 --> 01:50:08,560
(narrator)
The Q'eros relocate nearby,

535
01:50:08,584 --> 01:50:13,393
this time hidden from theukuku
and other pilgrims.

536
01:50:13,417 --> 01:50:16,852
Once again, the group
assembles their offering,

537
01:50:16,876 --> 01:50:18,209
called adespacho.

538
01:50:26,542 --> 01:50:29,976
They add sweets, seeds,
nuts, and feathers

539
01:50:30,000 --> 01:50:32,209
and a drop of earthly spirits.

540
01:51:01,167 --> 01:51:02,834
[distant firework popping]

541
01:51:15,459 --> 01:51:18,459
[fire crackling]

542
01:51:25,999 --> 01:51:27,852
As thedespachoburns,

543
01:51:27,876 --> 01:51:30,059
the smoke rises
to the mountaintops,

544
01:51:30,083 --> 01:51:32,709
and the offering
reaches theapu.

545
01:51:35,667 --> 01:51:38,727
After thedespachois consumed,

546
01:51:38,751 --> 01:51:43,042
this area is sacred,
and the pilgrims must leave it.

547
01:51:45,999 --> 01:51:47,768
They will return home

548
01:51:47,792 --> 01:51:50,975
under the watchful gaze
of Apu Ausangate,

549
01:51:50,999 --> 01:51:53,999
leaving their prayers
in the mountains.

550
01:52:07,042 --> 01:52:10,101
Alarmed by changes
to the ecosystem,

551
01:52:10,125 --> 01:52:11,643
communities have created

552
01:52:11,667 --> 01:52:15,542
an indigenous protected area
called the Potato Park.

553
01:52:20,959 --> 01:52:22,768
[Argumendo speaking
native language]

554
01:52:22,792 --> 01:52:25,792
[Gamarra speaking
native language]

555
01:52:34,042 --> 01:52:36,975
(Argumendo)
We have to be open to changes

556
01:52:36,999 --> 01:52:39,185
without losing our own identity.

557
01:52:39,209 --> 01:52:40,975
So what people are doing here

558
01:52:40,999 --> 01:52:44,975
is trying to see how best crops
are adapted here

559
01:52:44,999 --> 01:52:49,167
so they can later
move them lower or back.

560
01:52:51,375 --> 01:52:53,751
It's the best answer
to climate change.

561
01:52:55,459 --> 01:52:58,459
[laughing]

562
01:53:01,584 --> 01:53:04,975
(narrator)
The park has drawn visitors
from around the world,

563
01:53:04,999 --> 01:53:07,727
including Ethiopians
who share their concerns

564
01:53:07,751 --> 01:53:11,226
of preserving biodiversity
and food security.

565
01:53:11,250 --> 01:53:22,185
[uplifting music]

566
01:53:22,209 --> 01:53:25,435
They are part of a growing
network of indigenous people

567
01:53:25,459 --> 01:53:28,542
sharing strategies
to protect their land.

568
01:53:33,876 --> 01:53:35,643
(Woldu)
The indigenous people
have the right

569
01:53:35,667 --> 01:53:38,435
to take their future
in their hands

570
01:53:38,459 --> 01:53:44,975
and organize and also propagate
their own cultures.

571
01:53:44,999 --> 01:53:48,667
Protecting biodiversity
has global importance.

572
01:54:02,999 --> 01:54:06,975
(Scurrah)
Will the Andes sustain
their farming communities?

573
01:54:06,999 --> 01:54:09,643
The best way
to protect biodiversity

574
01:54:09,667 --> 01:54:13,975
is to have a healthy culture
living inside that ecosystem,

575
01:54:13,999 --> 01:54:16,185
because they have been
preserving it.

576
01:54:16,209 --> 01:54:19,727
It's so fragile, really,
in the end.

577
01:54:19,751 --> 01:54:23,435
People are very much attached
spiritually to crops

578
01:54:23,459 --> 01:54:27,435
and to the land,
to the mountains.

579
01:54:27,459 --> 01:54:30,143
It's not in books
or in classrooms.

580
01:54:30,167 --> 01:54:31,768
You have to practice.

581
01:54:31,792 --> 01:54:33,393
You have to touch it
with your hands,

582
01:54:33,417 --> 01:54:34,975
and you have to eat it.

583
01:54:34,999 --> 01:54:37,268
You have to be part of it.

584
01:54:37,292 --> 01:54:39,501
For us, that's the way.

585
01:54:40,999 --> 01:54:42,975
I'm an optimist,

586
01:54:42,999 --> 01:54:45,975
and I think we have
a beautiful country

587
01:54:45,999 --> 01:54:48,018
and a responsibility
towards the rest of the world

588
01:54:48,042 --> 01:54:50,393
because of what
the Andean civilization

589
01:54:50,417 --> 01:54:53,643
and living in this part
of the world means.

590
01:54:53,667 --> 01:54:56,667
[Mariano Machacca
speaking native language]

591
01:55:42,792 --> 01:55:45,810
(announcer)
Next time on
Standing on Sacred Ground,

592
01:55:45,834 --> 01:55:47,727
Aboriginal people in Australia

593
01:55:47,751 --> 01:55:50,101
resist destruction
of a sacred river,

594
01:55:50,125 --> 01:55:52,226
and native Hawaiians
reclaim an island

595
01:55:52,250 --> 01:55:55,852
used as a bombing target.

596
01:55:55,876 --> 01:55:57,876
For more information,
log on to:

597
01:56:02,167 --> 01:56:04,727
For DVDs
ofStanding on Sacred Ground,

598
01:56:04,751 --> 01:56:05,999
call:

599
01:56:17,999 --> 01:56:20,643
Funding for theStanding
on Sacred Groundseries


600
01:56:20,667 --> 01:56:21,685
has been provided by

601
01:56:21,709 --> 01:56:24,167
the Corporation
for Public Broadcasting.

602
01:56:26,334 --> 01:56:28,834
Additional funding
was provided by the following:

603
01:56:34,292 --> 01:56:36,292
A complete list is available at:


Citation

Main credits

McLeod, Christopher (film director)
McLeod, Christopher (film producer)
McLeod, Christopher (cinematographer)
Huang, Jennifer (film producer)
Huang, Jennifer (screenwriter)
Greene, Graham (narrator)
Kilcher, Q'Orianka (storyteller)

Other credits

Edited by Marta Wohl; directors of photography, Andrew Black, Christopher McLeod, Vicente Franco; composer, Tom Disher.


Distributor credits

Christopher McLeod
Writer: Jennifer Huang
Co-Producers: Jessica Abbe, Jennifer Huang
Storyteller: Q\'orianka Kilcher
Editors: Marta Wohl
Videographers: Andrew Black, Christopher McLeod, Vicente Franco
Sound: David Wendlinger, Wilfredo Ilizarbe
Associate Producers: Erin Lee, Marlo McKenzie, Ashley Tindall
Composer: Tom Disher
Narrator: Graham Greene
A Presentation of Pacific Islanders in Communications and Vision Maker Media
A Production of the Sacred Land Film Project of Earth Island Institute

Docuseek2 subjects

Peru
Ethiopia
Biodiversity
Environmental Anthropology
Ethics
Human Rights
Indigenous Peoples
Sociology
Indigenous Sprituality and Religion

Distributor subjects

African Studies
Anthropology
Biodiversity
Climate Change/Global Warming
Developing World
Environment
Environmental Ethics
Environmental Justice
Geography
Global Issues
Health
Human Rights
Humanities
Indigenous Peoples
Latin American Studies
Religion
Sociology

Keywords

Gamo Highlands, Ethiopia, Andes, Peru, indigenous highlands communities, threats to forests, threats to farms, threats to faith, indigenous customs, protecting biodiversity, sacred lands under pressure, religious conflicts, climate change, decline of spiritual practices, protecting trees, protecting meadows, protecting mountains, evangelical Christians, riot, Q'eros, pilgrimage to glacier, evicted by Catholics, potato farmers, global warming, melting glaciers, adapting agriculture to changing climate; "Fire and Ice"; Bullfrog Films; Standing on Sacred Ground

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